A seller with expertise in local uses that the buyer lacks would likely take responsibility for the CIF to encourage the buyer to accept an agreement, for example. Small businesses may prefer that most of them take responsibility, as this can lead to reduced costs. Some companies also have special access through customs, documenting transport costs when calculating taxation and other needs requiring a special transit agreement. In 1879, a porcelain merchant offered to buy clay “at 15s. per tonne FOB Fowey”. The distributor went bankrupt after the supplier of its delivered the tone to the port of Fowey, England, in accordance with the FOB agreement. The case was brought before Judge Bacon, who wrote in Ex parte Rosevear China and at a time when ground transportation took place on horseback and by car: costs, insurance and freight (CIF) and Free on Board (FOB) are international shipping agreements used for the transport of goods between a buyer and a seller. They are among the most common of the 12 international trade terms (Incoterms) defined by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in 1936. Specific definitions vary somewhat in each country, but in general, both contracts indicate the origin and destination information that is used to determine where liability officially begins and ends and defines buyers` responsibilities to sellers. as well as sellers to buyers.
CIF and FOB are distinguished above all by the responsibility of the goods during transport. In CIF contracts, insurance and other costs are borne by the seller, with liability and costs related to successful transit being paid by the seller until receipt of the goods from the buyer. Among the responsibilities of the seller are the transport of goods to the nearest port, loading on a boat and paying for insurance and freight. In North America, FOB is entered into a sales contract to determine where responsibility for the goods passes from the seller to the buyer. FOB stands for “Free On Board”. There is no payment by post by the buyer for the transport costs of the goods. There are two possibilities: “FOB origin” or “FOB target”. “FOB origin” means that the transfer takes place as soon as the goods are safe on board the transport. `fob destination` means the transfer at the time the goods are withdrawn from transport to the place of destination.
. . .